DNA supercoiling is a significant contributor to the control of gene expression and it is not damage that cells have to solve.The results of the study were published in Cell Reports.when stretched to two-metre-long DNA molecules in each human cell is being unpacked and packed again to enable the expression of genetic information. When genes must be accessed for transcription, the unwinds and the strands separate from each other so that all the elements needed for gene expression can access the relevant region. This process results in the accumulation of cooling that has to be solved.
Felipe Cortés, the head of Topology and DNA Breaks Group at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre said that the results help us understand that supercoiling is an important contributor to the control of gene expression and not just a problem related to the metabolism.
This study reveals that this type of Regulation occurs mainly in specific genes that are massively activated in a few minutes in response to different types of stimuli like cellular stress, cell division signals, hormones or neuronal activation.Topoisomerases are proteins that relieve the topological stress by removing both positive and negative supercoiling, that is, over- and under-winding the strand as compared to its relaxed state.