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Diabetes Onset Preceded by Gene Expression Changes

The new research suggests that the changes in Gene expression appear in the blood to precede the onset of symptoms in children with type 1 Diabetes. It also points out the possibility of predicting T1D development with blood tests in the future. The study was published in Science Translational Medicine, members of the Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young.

Eoin McKinney, a researcher affiliated with the Jeffrey Cheah Biomedical Centre and the University of Cambridge, and his colleagues told that theOur results indicate that Type 1 Diabetes is characterized by early and longitudinal changes in gene expression, informing the immunopathology of disease progression and facilitating prediction of its course.

The consortium used arrays to profile the transcriptome of more than 2,000 peripheral blood samples collected over time from 401 children from birth to age 15 who went on to develop either islet autoimmunity or type 1 Diabetes.

The transcriptional network analyses, gene expression-based immune cell type frequency predictions, and other approaches went on to compare the samples with one another and with those from unaffected, age-matched controls, leading to a presymptomatic autoimmune signature in affected children that appeared to reflect enhanced natural killer cell activity.

In developing the age-independent model for predicting Type 1 Diabetes and islet autoimmunity. The researchers teased that the gene expression profiles present in children who went on to develop each condition. They also divided the gene expression shifts corresponding to specific endotypes of Type 1 Diabetes which includes a fast-progressing form of the disease involving autoantibodies that target insulin and a form with autoantibodies that target the glutamic acid decarboxylase enzyme in the pancreas.

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